70 – CR2020 – EXHIBIT ARHITECTURA SRL
Main author: Oprea Dragoș
Coauthors: Bertleff Johannes, Oprea Cristian Mihai, Vlăsceanu Tudor Bogdan, Petrencu Nicolae, Cucoreanu Dana, Rășoiu Ciprian Ionuț, Szabolcs Egyed, Răzvan Andrei, Flavius Adrian Ianchiș, Nechita Sabina, Grecea Raluca, Bârsan Ioana Lucia
Architecture collaborators: Gavriliu Traian, Bucur Beatrice, Dimofte Alice, Necula Radu
Specialty collaborators: Dr. Angheloiu Bogdan
THE STUDIED SITE
For the urban and the architectural analysis of the site we considered relevant the area between Clinicilor St. at North, V. Babes St. at East, Bogdan Petriceicu St. at South and Piezișă St. at West. On one hand, our study identifies the existent values of the area as well as its malfunctions, and on the other it focuses on the anticipation of the impact of the new transplant center and its integration in the urban environment. The heart of the studied area is Mikó Garden, for which we envision a better connection with the existing and proposed hospital facilities, as well as with its borders along the city streets.
PEDESTRIAN AND VEHICULAR TRAFFIC. GREEN AREAS
The hospital ensemble including the three main terraces and the park between the second and the third terraces must be cleared of the residual parking lots and the uncontrolled interventions that led to minimal pedestrian traffic and green spaces. We consider that the parking lots between the pavilions must be reduced to the bare minimum (mainly for medical staff) and all the interstitial space should be dominated by vegetation (medium sized trees and shrubs ) and pedestrian paths.
Currently on the hospital premises there are on average 100 parked cars. According to our proposed systematization, 73 over-ground parking spaces will remain available organized around the clinics in compact lots of approximately 10 spaces – for the medical staff. The new transplant center will also provide 283 underground parking spaces, covering the site parking requirements.
Site roads are provided with U-turns for cars and ambulances, the access of the latter being possible directly at the first and second terraces from adjacent public streets. Moreover, ambulance transfer between the first two terraces is provided by a road ramp.
Mikó Garden, extending itself towards the heart of the terraces housing hospital facilities, represents the site’s green link. Rehabilitated, the garden connects included and adjacent functions with the city beyond its limits, while offering a calm atmosphere, an alternative to the neighboring urban noise.
Rehabilitating the park between the second and the third terrace will address two important needs : connecting the transplant center to the existent clinics and Mikó Garden, offering an intimate, reflexive space for recreation, socializing, recovering, palliation.
The new stairway on the park’s East side offers a direct connection between the clinics, while the old restored steps remain as witness and become part of the promenade. The stairs in the park are supported by elevators integrated in the landscape design, granting access to the disabled persons.
There are three types of existent buildings: historical monuments, functional buildings without a significant value, parasitic interventions that incorporate building equipment.
Buildings included in the protected heritage will be rehabilitated or restored. Buildings without significant value, generally built subsequently as extensions or independent, will be architecturally reconfigured and functionally adapted to current requirements: the Emergency Room (although it parasites the initial ensemble, we believe it should be maintained as it represents a built resource), the extension of the Pulmonology Hospital, the Diagnosis Center, the University Rectorate Buildinge etc.
Buildings that were erased from the site plan are considered parasitic and if their functions cannot be relocated to existent buildings, they will be replaced by new, context-adapted, preferably underground ones (annexes, technical equipment, installations).
SITE SPECIFICITY / MASSING
The theme requires the configuration of a volume that surpasses by far the dimensions of buildings in the urban context. We propose a simple, ordered, clearly structured building. The proposal creates 3 exterior spaces with different functions and ambiances, connecting the transplant center to adjacent urban spaces:
- Access square connected to the sidewalk at V. Babes and Studenților Alley crossing.
- The courtyard at the North-West of the building, a semi-public space, with access from the main lobby. This courtyard also facilitates diagonal, West-North site crossing.
- The North Square: connection with the park and extension of pedestrian axis towards terraces 2 and 1.
Terraces above the cylindrical section and the West section complete the offer of exterior spaces designed for medical staff and patients.
The proposed volume is trying to adapt the different urban settings in its neighborhood: the cylindric trough its scale creates a non-aggressive vicinity, harmonized with V. Babes St., while the West section, lower than the central wing, allows crossing towards the semi-private space of St. Pantelimon Church.
Volumetric expression translates functional segregation: the cylindric section contains functions with flows independent from the clinical hospital life, but connects them very well to the hospital: administration, research area, amphitheater. The rigorous section with L-shaped print is adapted to necessities and improvements of the hospital flows.
The grid of the façades sustains the rigorous volume organization and allows the stylistic recall from the new building to the existent clinics on terraces 1 and 2.
The chosen materials, apparent brick and bronze panels integrate in the urban context materiality. Brick cladding facilitates human scale trough its dimension and texture. The façade is designed using prefabricated elements that will be attached to the main structure.
The main pedestrian access is designed at the ground floor, connected to the sidewalk of V. Babeș St. and Studenților Alley crossing. The lobby opens at the cylindric volume’s ground floor, extending towards the main volume’s middle section. This lobby allows the distribution of patients, attendants and staff to the administrative, research and hospital areas.
Emergency access for ambulances is designed at underground level 1. Road access allows ambulance entrance as well as drop-off road access. An elevator connects the drop-off area to the ground floor main lobby.
Underground level 2 hosts supply and waste disposal access. Access ramp in underground level 2 is designed on the East wing, on V. Babes St.
Underground level 3 and 4 is dedicated mainly to staff parking and it has dedicated areas for the medical personnel.
1. Medical Staff Flow
The access to their dedicated locker rooms is made from the parking lot at level -3. Staff then follows medical staff circuit.
Pharmacy staff enter directly in the pharmacy.
1.1. Medical Staff Flow in OT (operating theater)/ ICU (intensive care unit)
Staff passes through the filter changing rooms from the clean social area to the clean area, then through the scrub room.
1.2 Medical staff flow in the dirty areas
Staff passes through filter changing rooms. The circulations in the clean areas don’t intersect with those from the dirty areas.
2. Patients flow
2.1 Outpatient flow
From the main reception at the ground floor the patient is directed towards the outpatient clinic’s reception.
2.2 Hospitalization patient flow
From the main reception at the ground floor the patient is directed towards the intermediate receptions at the floors with patient wards.
2.3. Day hospitalization patient flow
From the ground floor reception the patient is directed towards day hospitalization area.
2.4 Ambulance transported patient flow
From the ER (emergency room) at level -1 the patient is transferred towards OT/ ICU/ ward/ morgue
2.5 Patient flow to/ from OT
Separate flows have been designed for access from the social clean area to the clean area (OT/ ICU) by buffer rooms. The transfer from OT to ICU is dedicated (clean). The transfer from ICU to social clean areas (patient w ards) is carried out through buffer rooms. Flows are designed so as to avoid the crossing between patients entering OT and those exiting ICU.
3.1. OT Instruments flow
By montecharges dedicated to horizontal and vertical sterile instruments circuits, from the sterile instruments storage room to the OT, by means of transfer filter windows.
Instruments evacuation from OT is made through transfer filter windows in the horizontal and vertical dirty circuit. Instruments transfer from the dirty flow to the clean flow is carried out through washing-disinfectors with double transfer doors.
3.2. Medical supplies flow
Medical supplies are transported from the storage room to OT/ ICU by dedicated montecharges.
3.3. Pharmaceuticals flow
From the hospital internal pharmacy by pneumatic systems serving each floor.
4. Attendees/ caregivers flow
Main reception->intermediate receptions on each floor->buffer rooms->wards
5. Food flow
By dedicated montecharges or elevator from the catering unit to the specific floors
6. Scrubs/ linen/ disposable items
Specific flow with separate schedule for supply and evacuation
7. Waste disposal
By horizontal and vertical dirty corridor – dirty elevators. There are special areas for sorting biohazard/ general waste/ dirty medical instruments. Clean flows do not cross with dirty flows.
8. Biologic samples flow
By dedicated pneumatic system
Interior spaces where various persons stay for long and medium periods of time (wards, doctor and nurses rooms etc.) are given a special attention regarding the atmosphere . We try to avoid as much as possible generic, rather industrial type of materials (e.g. PVC floors) and we wish to emphasize on a series of textures and surfaces that can bring a feeling of comfort: terrazzo floors, micro topping, treated wood wall finishes, smooth ceilings made of gypsum board or painted metal sheet with sealed joints.
Illumination system plays an important part in defining the atmosphere and is programmed to meet the requirements of each type of function.
Building systems, building materials, services, accessories are chosen and calibrated to meet a holistic, sustainable approach:
Prefabrication procedures are used in order to reduce time and costs;
Use of local materials for reducing the carbon footprint generated by transport, as well as costs;
Renewable materials use (wood for some interior finishes)
Material choice with low production costs; use of low-tech finishes such as brick.
- Services / use:
-Smart design for reduced energy consumption: good natural lighting, facade elements shading (expressed grid facade) and additional shading systems/ solar control systems, natural cooling and thermal inertia (brick facade instead of curtain wall)
-Efficient materials: glass with efficient coefficient for thermal and solar radiation control, ventilated facade system (within the apparent brick grid)
-Efficient services, calibrated for energy consumption reduction: heat recovery systems, efficient light sources (LED), using renewable energy: solar panels/ solar heaters, rainwater storage and usage, BMS and EMS systems.